Vaginal infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and trichomoniasis (TV), are among the most common reasons for which women seek medical investigation.
Complex ecosystems of microbes reside in the female reproductive tract. The vagina consists of trillions of microorganisms — mostly bacteria, plus some fungi and viruses. A disruption in this ecosystem, usually a deficiency of Lactobacillus and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, may result in possible infection and unwanted symptoms.
An estimated 75% of women will have at least one episode of VVC, TV or BV in their lifetime and over 30% of women test positive for BV at any given time, with prevalence rates varying over different populations studied.
The vagina is home to a complex ecosystem of organisms that may include bacteria, viruses, parasites and yeasts. Some of these organisms are important in keeping us healthy as they act to discourage other potential pathogens from thriving. Disruptions in balance of any of these can lead to infections and/or uncomfortable symptoms. Every vaginal microbiome is different and factors such as age, hormonal disruptions and even antibiotic/probiotic use can contribute to changes.